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by Herman Amersfoort Wim Klinkert

Download Small Powers in the Age of Total War, 1900-1940 (History of Warfare) fb2, epub

ISBN: 9004203214
Author: Herman Amersfoort Wim Klinkert
Language: English
Publisher: BRILL (April 11, 2011)
Pages: 384
Category: Europe
Subcategory: History
Rating: 4.2
Votes: 287
Size Fb2: 1991 kb
Size ePub: 1256 kb
Size Djvu: 1382 kb
Other formats: mobi mbr azw txt


PDF On Jan 1, 2011, H. Amersfoort and others published Small powers in the age .

Download full-text PDF. Contents. Small States in a Big World. Abbenhuis: ‘Too good to be true?

Usually it is a foreign military threat or the geopolitical position of a country that attracts the most attention as a factor to explain the emergence of the national security policies of small, neutral powers like the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Norway and Switzerland in the period 1900-1940. While these factors may explain the similarities between these small states, they fail to make clear why there were such great differences between them

8. W. Murray: Small Nations under the Gun. Europe 1914-1940. 9. M. Strohn: The German Army in the Interwar Years.

Download with Google. Small powers in the age of total war, 1900-1940. 8. 10. J. Vaesen: Between Passéisme and Modernisation? The Case of the Belgian Fortification System 1926-1940. 11. H. Amersfoort: Give us back our field army! The Dutch Army Leadership and the Operational Planning during the Interwar Years. 12. T. Kristiansen: Neutrality Guard or Preparations for War?

Small Powers in the A. .by Herman Amersfoort.

Small Powers in the A. In the period 1900-1940 the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Norway and Switzerland reacted in divergent ways to the same foreign military threats. This volume argues that their internal politics and politico-military strategic culture are vital keys to understanding those differences.

Herman Amersfoort, P. 1988) in History, University of Leiden, is Professor of Military History at the Netherlands Defence Academy and at the University of Amsterdam. This in interesting collection of essays, which resulted from an international conference on ‘Small Powers in the Age of Total War, 1900-1940’, held at the Netherlands Defence Academy in Breda, the Netherlands, on 26 and 27 November 2008. It is volume in ‘The History of Warfare’ series from the publisher, Brill of Leiden.

In the period 1900-1940 the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Norway and Switzerland reacted in divergent ways to the same foreign military . Defending Neutrality : The Netherlands Prepares for War, 1900-1925.

In the period 1900-1940 the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Norway and Switzerland reacted in divergent ways to the same foreign military threats. Warfare and Society in Europe : 1898 to the Present. by: Neiberg, Michael S. Published: (2003). Other Combatants, Other Fronts : Competing Histories of the First World War. by: Miller, Alisa.

Leiden/Boston: E. BRill, 2011. Pp. xii, 372. Notes, index.

We trust fully in the power of Britain to deliver us from German bondage. Small Powers in the Age of Total War, 1900–1940. The Journal of Modern History. We are not defeatists.

Usually it is a foreign military threat or the geopolitical position of a country that attracts the most attention as a factor to explain the emergence of the national security policies of small, neutral powers like the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Norway and Switzerland in the period 1900-1940. While these factors may explain the similarities between these small states, they fail to make clear why there were such great differences between them. The authors of this volume argue that the internal politics and the politico-military strategic cultures of the countries are vital keys to understanding their divergent reactions to similar, or at least comparable, foreign military threats: World War I and German expansionism in the second half of the 1930s.The contributors are Maartje Abbenhuis, Michael Clemmesen, Kjeld Galster, Tom Kristiansen, Paul Moeyes, Williamson Murray, Michael Olsansky, Christian Paulin, Matthias Strohn, Anne Tjepkema, and Joost Vaessen.

Comments:

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Small Powers in the Age of Total War 1900-1940, Ed. Herman Amersfoort & Wim Klinkert, Brill, 2011, 372pp

This in interesting collection of essays, which resulted from “an international conference on ‘Small Powers in the Age of Total War, 1900-1940’, held at the Netherlands Defence Academy in Breda, the Netherlands, on 26 and 27 November 2008.” It is volume #65 in ‘The History of Warfare’ series from the publisher, Brill of Leiden.

From the Editors’ Preface:
“…The First World War, as the first modern total war, presented the smaller European states with problems of a novel kind. The politics of laissez-faire and neutrality that neutral states had been wont to follow in previous decades were put to the test in an unprecedented manner shortly before and especially during the war of 1914-18. The anchoring of neutrality in international law, achieved during the Hague Peace Conferences, was no longer sufficient as such. The preservation of neutrality required constant vigilance and skilful manoeuvring, not just in a political but also in a military sense. The war years, therefore constitute a worthwhile case-study of the actual functioning and importance of neutrality policies in circumstances determined by a new way of warfare, viz. total war. This volume highlights the military policies of these neutral countries, which makes it an appropriate sequel to the collection published following the conference of the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation, entitled ‘The End of Neutrality?’, which was held in Amsterdam in 2009 and which focussed on the non-military aspects of neutrality.”

“Our focus extends beyond the war years of 1914-18. In the following two decades the small states also had to ask themselves what consequences the Great War would have for their military policies. Considering their limited means, how were they supposed to follow the trends of increasing scale, the growing importance of technology and industrialisation, rising expenditure, and the increasing involvement of the civilian population in the wart effort? This tension between, on the one hand, military logic and ever-increasing financial requirements, and limited resources on the other, was intensified by the economic recession of the 1920s, the economic crisis of the 1930s, and the threat of imminent war due to Germany’s rearmament and territorial expansion in the latter half of the 1930s.”

The Contents are –
P001: Introduction. Small States in a Big World – H Amersfoort & W Klinkert
P027: “Too Good to be True?” European Hopes for Neutrality before 1914 – MM Abbenhuis
P057: Neutral Tones. The Netherlands and Switzerland and Their Interpretations of Neutrality 1914-1918 – P Moyes
P085: Fall K. German Offensive Plans Against the Netherlands 1916-1918 – W Klinkert
P119: German War Plans Against Denmark 1916-1918 – C Paulin
P135: The Development of the Air Defence of Copenhagen – MH Clemmesen
P153: The Debate on Denmark’s Defence 1900-1940 – K Galster
P183: Small Nations under the Gun. Europe 11914-1940 – W Murray
P201: The German Army in the Interwar Years – M Strohn
P221: Between Passeisme and Modernisation? The Case of the Belgian Fortification System 1926-1940 – J Vasen
P251: Give us Back our Field Army! The Dutch Army leadership and the Operational Planning During the Interwar Years – H Amersfoort
P281: Neutrality Guard or Preparations for War? The Norwegian Armed Forces and the Coming of the Second World War – T Kristiansen
P307: The Development of the Swiss Army’s Combat Methods after the First World War – MM Olsansky
P321: Strategic Dilemmas of a Small Power with Colonial Empire. The Netherlands east Indies 1936-1941 – AC Tjepkema
P351: Bibliography
P363: Name Index
P369: Geographical Index

INTRODUCTION. SMALL STATES IN A BIG WORLD – H Amersfoort & W Klinkert
Small States in the International Balance of Power; Small States and Neutrality; The Appreciation of Neutrality; Neutrality and Politico-Military Strategic Culture; The Period Between 1890 and World War I; The Interwar Years; Strategic Culture, Home Politics and Operational Planning; Conclusion.

“TOO GOOD TO BE TRUE?” EUROPEAN HOPES FOR NEUTRALITY BEFORE 1914 – MM Abbenhuis
The History of Neutrality to 1815; Neutrality from Vienna to Paris, 1815-1856; The Wars of the 1860s and 1870s; At the Turn of the Century; Attempting to Neutralise Scandinavia; From Peace to War, 1907-1914; Conclusion.

NEUTRAL TONES. THE NETHERLANDS AND SWITZERLAND AND THEIR INTERPRETATIONS OF NEUTRALITY 1914-1918 – P Moyes
Swiss Neutrality before 1914; Dutch Neutrality Before 1914; Neutrality: Ideal and Reality; Switzerland: the Colonels-Affair; The Netherlands: the March 1916 Alarm; Two Versions of Neutrality.

FALL K. GERMAN OFFENSIVE PLANS AGAINST THE NETHERLANDS 1916-1918 – W Klinkert
1914: Fortified Positions Take Shape; 1915: Tension Rises; 1916: Operationsentwurf Fall K Takes Form; 1917: Unrestricted U-boat War; 1917 Fall K: the Planning of the Attack on the Netherlands: November 1917: A Pseudo-Alerte?; 1918: Endspiel; Conclusion.

GERMAN WAR PLANS AGAINST DENMARK 1916-1918 – C Paulin
Preparation – Early Plans 1892; 1916 – Operational Planning is Resumed; Bureaucratic Quarrels; Summer 1917 – the Army provides the Troops; Penetration pacifique – the Role of the German Foreign Ministry; Spring 1918 – Activist Attack; Conclusion – the Attack that Never Came?

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE AIR DEFENCE OF COPENHAGEN – MH Clemmesen
The Military and Political Framework; A New Threat Emerging: 1912-1915; The Early Development of Copenhagen Air Defence; The Independent Navy Air Defence; The Air Defence Plans Realised in 1916; Expansion Based on New Equipment?; The Plan for Reinforced Artillery Defence; Lembcke Ordered to Coordinate and Command; Development Stopped and Frozen in Spring-Summer 1918; The Threat from Mid-1917.

THE DEBATE ON DENMARK’S DEFENCE 1900-1940 – K Galster
The Debate on Defence Policy 1901-09; Democracy and the Realist Approach – Some Conclusions

SMALL NATIONS UNDER THE GUN. EUROPE 1914-1940 – W Murray
Small Nations and the First World War; The Aftermath of War; The Unravelling of Versailles and the Small Powers; The Darkest Time: The Small Powers in the 1930s; The Darkest Years; World War II and the Smaller Powers; Conclusion.

THE GERMAN ARMY IN THE INTERWAR YEARS – M Strohn

BETWEEN PASSEISME AND MODERNISATION? THE CASE OF THE BELGIAN FORTIFICATION SYSTEM 1926-1940 – J Vasen
Introduction; Who is in Charge of the Army? The Belgian Military Decision Making Process and the Choice for the Trunk or the Limbs; Political Attitudes, Priorities, Constraints and Other Thresholds: the Modernisation of the Fortification System (1926-1940); The Galet System: Forts in Support of a Small, but Professional Field Army; The Deveze-Hellebaut Option: the Establishment of a ‘Wall’ at the Eastern Border; The Return to neutrality: Towards a Hybrid System?; The Outcome of the Modernisation of the Belgian Fortification System; Conclusion.

GIVE US BACK OUR FIELD ARMY! THE DUTCH ARMY LEADERSHIP AND THE OPERATIONAL PLANNING DURING THE INTERWAR YEARS – H Amersfoort
Geo-strategy and Strategy; After World War I; The Military Geography of the Netherlands; The Field Army; The Threat after World War I; The Strategic Assault and the Field Army; Colijn’s Intervention; The Strategic Exercises of the General Staff; Exercise Country Defence 1938; Conclusion.

NEUTRALITY GUARD OR PREPARATIONS FOR WAR? THE NORWEGIAN ARMED FORCES AND THE COMING OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR – T Kristiansen
Introduction; Norwegian Security and Defence: Historic Determinants and Impediments; Preparations for Neutrality and War: The Chickens Come Home to Roost; Conclusion.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SWISS ARMY’S COMBAT METHODS AFTER THE FIRST WORLD WAR – MM Olsansky
Introduction; Assessing the War Experiences in the Immediate Post-War Period; The New Field Manual Felddienst 27; An Outlook into the 1930s and Final Conclusion.

STRATEGIC DILEMMAS OF A SMALL POWER WITH COLONIAL EMPIRE. THE NETHERLANDS EAST INDIES 1936-1941 – AC Tjepkema
Part I; Part II; Part III: Assessment.
Samugul
Ecerpts from the review on StrategyPage.Com:

"The fourteen essays emerged from a 2008 conference held in the Netherlands on the problems of the neutral northern and central European powers in the period of the world wars, the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, and Switzerland. Opening essays address the evolution of the idea of "neutrality", with a look at the notable role of the U. S. in the development of the concept in international law, and at "European Hopes for Neutrality Before 1914".

"Individual essays then examine the Swiss, Norwegian, and Dutch cases during World War I, and German plans for war with Denmark and Switzerland. For the interwar period, there is an essay on German defense in the 1920s, which is followed by essays on the evolution of Norwegian, Dutch, Belgian, and Swiss policies and defense measures in the hope of maintaining neutrality through to the eve of World War II, including questions of air defense, rearmament, and fortification, plus an essay on the problem of the Netherlands Indies."

For the balance of the review, see StrategyPage.Com

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